14 декабря, 2015

Fifty years of patent information centres in Russia//World Patent Information -2011-№3 – Available online 5 May 2011 -

(Scanning with a lot of errors and typos)

LG. Кгаvеts*.  World Patent Information, v. ЗЗ (2011) p.282-285

Е-ттl address: krаvеts27@>уапdех.ru.    URL: http://www.patent-kravets.ru.

ABSTRACT

The aгticle contains а brief historical review of developing раtепt infonnation centres in the structure of the State Сommittее оп Iпvеntions апd Discoveries (Rospatent) and their participation in estabIishillg tlle national раtепt information system. Тhe process is divided into three stages resulting from, first, changes in dеmапds шаdе Ьу  the new generations of users of information products and services and. second, renewal of methods, technologies and organizational forms of infonnation support of innovation processes.

© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. АН rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In July 1960 the Soviet govemment established within the structше оС the Committee оп Inventions and Discoveries, the Сenтl Bureau оПеchniсаl Iпfоппаtiоп (CBТI) – the firstspedalized расепс information agency in the country. In September 1962 свп fomled the basis of а newly established СептI Research and Deve\opment \nstitute of Patent \nformation (CNIIPI). In june 1980 the CNIIPI was renamed as the AII-Union Research and Development lnstitute of Patent Information (VNIIPI), wllich was in October 1995 reorganized as 11le Information Editoria\ Center “Patent- (INIC).

This chain of official renaming reflects the stages of intensive work aimed at improving patent information support Сог scientific. technical and economic deve\opment оС the country. These stages overlap initial deve\opment оС centralized patent information processing ас the CNIIPI; tl1e VNIIPI activities, аiшеd at establishing сЬе State Patent Information System; and. finally, INIC “Patent” masteгing the market mode\ оС patent information support оС innovation.

2. Develоpiпg the concept of centralized patent infoпnatiоп procrssing

This stage coincided with the еstаЫishшепt of the СВТI. It was cbaracterized Ьу orienting patent infопnаtiоп activity, mainly, towards the provision оС patent examination with primary

il1f01mation sоuгсеs. This strategy ргesuрроsеd the avaiIability of sufficiendy сошрlеtе collections of patent specifications, arranged according со patent dassjfications, and their use in а traditional tibrary system. This demanded ап шgent decision оп two таin tasks:

  • со create, ас the ear\iest possibIe date, initial patent information геsошсеs necessary for the development of inventing and patent-licensing activities in the country’s scientific and industrial orgal1izations;
  • to develop and implement the scientifically well-founded concept of centralized processing and dissemination of patent infопnаtiоп with the help оС modem information technologies.

\t seemed \ogica\ that the absence оС te\ecommunications made it necessary, first оС all со move patent information геsошсеs as пеаг as possibIe to end users, dispersed across сЬе vast territory оС the USSR. Therefore CNIIPI and the Publishing Enterprise “Patent­performed (Ье gigantic task оС I11iсгоfilmiлg the wor\d расепс collections and providing thеш with traditiona\ reference and searching faci\ities (RSF).

As а result. already Ьу СЬе end оС the 1970s, the country had over 5000 regiol1al and industria\ brand1 patent collections containing about 500 шilliопs dосuшеl1ts. FOI’eigl1 specifications were ananged Ьу national c\assifications. 50 it was necessary to translate them into Russian and supplement them with subject matter, пате and other indexes, МOl’еоуег, tl1e main pat1: of tl1e world patent collections were published in foreign languages. lt was. therefore, decided ас the CNlIPI to trans\ate into Russian the abstracts ог c\aims pubIished in officia\ bulletins оС leading patent offices.

Despite indisputabIe usefulness of these extraordinary measures. the CNIIPI personnel Ьесате increasingly aware of the need for а dear-cut concept for optimizing селtrаlizеd processing of раtепt iпfоrmаtiоп with the ше of modem technology. Ву this аше the institute employed several huпdгеd specialists to start research and development work in various directions. Оп the опе hапd, there were ambitious ехреl;mепtal systems for machine trаnslаtiоп, automatic iпdехiпg and а l1ишЬег of rapid subject matter search systems; оп the other hand there were rather utili­tarian systems for automatic processing of bibIiographic infопnа­аоп about patent documents.

In tlle 1960s the CNIIPI sciel1tists developed ап ехреriшеl1tal system to automatically trапslаtе publications from the USPТO Official Gazette. It was the tirst machine translation system specialized for processing patent (ехв: their segmentation. struc­tшal analysis of typical patent phrases and selection of Russian equivalents [1]. ln parallel the institute developed an aItemative automatic indexing system, based оп ап English-Russian theSёlurus. This опе translated into Russian oniy necessary searcll terms, simplifying the searching process of English texts [2]. Taking into consideratiol1 that il1formatiol1 retrieval was the most iшроrtant task for раtепt ехаmiпегs; tlle CNIIPI took part in [Ье iпtеmаtiопаl programme of developing а пumЬег of thematically protiled search systems [3]. Simultaneously the institute was investigating different variants of automatic processing of bibIiographic infor­тааоп оп inventions. This diгесtiоп pгoved to ье тоге promising; it covered world patent iпfоппаtiоп шоге widely and ensured тоге diverse ргашсаl applications [4].

Investigations revealed that [Ье global state of information theory and ргашсе and existing technology. that was at our diSPOSёlI. allowed practicaI гешаЬоп of only those automatic systems that did not propose complex semantic analysis of docu­mепts and processing of large iпfогmаtiоп bodies [5]. Reasoning from this, it was recommended to consider, as the рriшщ goaI. developing а system of muIti-рurpоsе automatic processing of current bibliogJ’apl1ic data оп patents graduaIly coveril1g retr()­spective tiles. ТЬе геаlizatiоп of 111acllil1e translatiol1. automatic iпdexiпg апd а complex of search systerns with manual indexing was postponed.

Iп the middle оС the 1960s the CNIIPI personnel concentrated а considerabIe part of their resources оп tlle project [ог ап auto­таос system for processing biыographicc data оп inventions. It iпсludеd sub-systems [ог рroсеssiпg current bibliographic data. issuing signal infопnаtiоп оп пеw inventions, its dissen1ination according (о individuaI queries and accumulation of pгocessed data in automatic RSF for tlle world patent collection, which would provide шultifоld patent search апd comply with users' queries [5].

ТЬе project was positively received Ьу the fопnег СМЕЛ (CounciI for MutuaI Economic Assistance) countries and was adopted as tI1e basis faг developil1g ajoint systel11 nal11ed as “ЛSВА” (Automatic RefeJ’ence BibIiogl”aphic Apparatus). ТЬе direct practicaI result of this project Ьесаmе apparent in iпtеmаtiопаl ехсhапgе of bibIiographic data in а тасhiпе-геаdаЫе fопn among tI1e теmbeг states. lntепsifiсаtiоп of bibIiographic iпfогmаtiоп processing proved to Ье quite timely. It Ьесаше known that BIRPI (United Iпtеmаtiопаl Вигеаих [ог the Protection of Intellectual Property. later reorganized into WIPO) in the n1iddle of the 1960s also intended to carry out а siшilаг project. The BIRPI Director General. Arpad Bogsch, visited Moscow to get acquainted with the ASBA project.

Рагаllеl development of the WYРО iпtеmаtiопаl system radically faciIitated the filling of the CNIIPI syЯеш with initial bibIiographic data. From 1973 mасhiпе-геаdаbIе bibIiographic iпfопnаtiоп from most countries arrived at CNIIPI from INPADOC in exchal1ge [ог similar iпfопnаtiоп frOI11 the fОПllег СМЕЛ соuпtriеs that concentrated at the CNIIPI. At the end of 1970 the newly соп­structed All-Union Мagnetic Таре Service provided centralized dissеmiпаtiоп of mасhiпе-геаdаыe раtепt iпfопnаtiоп аll over the country.

ТЬе арргорriаtепess of the selected priorities was supported Ьу the fact that - оп the basis оС the iпtешаtiопal exchange of mасhiпе-геаdаыe biыographicc and, later, abstract iпfоmlаtiоп ­there were fшtl1ег developed at the CNIIPI (VNIIPI) systешs Сог subject шаttег search, identilYing patent families, detemlining their legal status and preparing patent publications and analyticaI materials оп inventive activity all over the world [7].

З. EstabIishing the state patent infornиtion system

ТЬе development of patent infопnаtiоп activity in the middle of the 1970s iпtепsitiеd orientation towards securing higher scientific and technical level and quaIity of industriaI production Ьу iшрlе­menting effective inventions. Iп August of 1973 tI1e gоvеШlllепt obliged the Comlllittee оп Inventions and Discoveries to сапу out patent research conceming tI1e 1ll0St important рroЫеrns of industrial development and assesslllent оС their tеchпiсаl level. ву this decisiol1 the activity of the СОЛ1111ittее exceeded the папow lil11its of dераrtшепtal раtепt examination tasks.

ТЬе CNlIPI (VNIIPI) had to trапsfопn tI1ese directives into new patent iпfопnаtiоп tasks. First of alI, they raised the role of refer­епсе al1d search facilities frol11 short-cut and generalized infor­mation, suitabIe [от assessing technology trends in specific industry branches and leading to new technical decisions. Patent specitica­tion files ceased to Ье "labour toOl5" but were tumed into а source for obtaining specific doruments according to search results. AlI these facilities llad to ье put at the diSPOSёlI оС el1d users Ьу l11utual efforts of central, regional and iпdustriаl branch iпfопnаtiоп bodies of the country. Therefore, in рагаllеl with the developments in the first stage. it was necessary to bring to the forefront new researches. directed to preparing an organizationaI and methodologicaI base СО!' constructing аn integrated patent iпfОП\1аtiоп systеш acro5s tlle countl)'.

Iп March 1981 the Committee, reorganized Ьу that time into the State Committee оп lnventions and Discoveries. together with the State Comn1ittee оп Science and Techl1ology adopted the 5-уеаг Programrne оС developing the State Patent Infom1ation SY5tem (GSPI). It was iпtепdеd to unite the automatic system of centralized processing of the world patent iпfопnаtiоп flow with the пеtwоrk of dozens of regional and hundreds оС indu5trial ЬгапсЬ patent collections dispersed ОУеГ the country, supplied Ьу modem search tools.

At the Ьеgiппiпg of the 1980s the GSPI included, besides infor­mation bodies оС the State Committee, 30 patent iпfопnаtiоп services of regional scientific and technicaI information agencies witll basic patent collectiol1s, about 50 patel1t iпfОШ1аtiоп services of central industrial infопnаtiоп bodies, 1200 information services of lеаdiпg епtегрrisеs with patent tiles for industrial branches and actual technological problems. Besides this, patent collections were compiled at dоzепs of other regional centres and thousands of organizations and el1terprises that participated in innovation projects [8]. Опе of tI1e sigпitiсапt сошропепts of the GSPI – the Al1-Union Magnetic Таре Service – supplied аll branches of tI1e system witl1 шаchiпе-геаdаЫе RSF [9].

ТЬе fomlation and developl11ent of tI1is vast l1etwork оС patent collectiol1s and equipping it with searching facilities presupposed scientitic suЬstапtiаtiоп of their rational distribution over the country. It was necesSёlry to optimize their structure and сотро­sition, to determine the main chablcteristics of patent search tools etc [10]. With that end in view tlle VNПРI scientists реrfопnеd statistica! research to substal1tiate tI1e represel1tatiol1 il1 patel1t til

The aгticle contains а brief historical review of developing раtепt infonnation centres in the structure of the State Сommittее оп Iпvеntions апd Discoveries (Rospatent) and their participation in estabIishillg tlle national раtепt information system. Тhe process is divided into three stages resulting from, first, changes in dеmапds шаdе Ьу  the new generations of users of information products and services and. second, renewal of methods, technologies and organizational forms of infonnation support of innovation processes.

of certain countries, dorument types, themes and their retrospec­tive limits. ТЬеу also determined the degree of correspol1dence Ьемееп the distribution of l1atiol1al patent i l1fОПllаtiоп resources and the сопсепtrаtiоп zones of their aetual and potential users. The reseaгch showed that the system was oversaturated with Рrimагу раtепt doruments and. а! the same time, patent Шб weгe по! sufficiently full and lacked the l1ecessary searcll fadlities. The primary task was to reduce supert1uous patent collections, streпgthеп their searching capabilities and increase the coГГf­spondence Ьемееп their holdings and the needs of customers [11].

Тhe developments iп сопstructiпg а state system of patent iпfоrmаtiоп resources, rationally distributed аll оуег the country, were positively appreciated Ьу WlPO and roused some iпtегеst in other countries. [п the1980s the author of this aгtic!e visited Mongolia and СиЬа and assisted in establishing their national patent information systeгns.

Subsequent social transfошыtiОl1S in the 1990s il1terrupted the realizatiol1 of the GSP[ programl11e. Neveгtheless, the l11ain features of the previously described schel11e of orgal1izing national patent information activity enduгed. Tгaditional patent files are being transformed il1to electгonic fOlmat and iпtег-hЪrary ех.сhалgе systems al"e аге being I"eplaced Ьу telecommunication media. Patent department pel"sonnel. released frош routine functions of рюсessiпg new pubIications al1d tгaditional library sel"Vidng al"e tuшiпg their attention (о tal"geted information and analytical support of their dients' reseal'ch and development. Вuc the ideo­logica! base of СОl1stПICtil1g tl1e il1fOlmаtiоп network I"emains, in its suЬstaпсе,uпаltегеd. [t is significant that iп mапу respects а simi­larIy distributed patent information structше, though оп а higher technological level, was later built iп (Ье EUl"opean Patent Conventiol1 СОШltI'iеs (PatLib).

4. Мastmпg tbe market model of patent iпfonnatiоп support

ТЬе last period of the I"eviewed 50 уеаг history is characterized Ьу гadical transformation of patent information sel"Vices undel" the inf1uence of мо mаiп factors:

- considerabIe change in demands made Ьу the new generation of users of information products and services;

- гadically renewed methods. tесhпоlоgiеs and Ol"ganizational [оrrns of information support fOI" innovation processes.

Enterprises iп the plal1ned есО1101l1У. Wllich usually organized their расепс infomlation work according (о instructions of higher bodies, were in the 1990s replaced, as а rule, Ьу econoll1ically independent iпstitutiопs that fOl"m their information роliсу reasol1il1g fщш ргасtiса! needs апd fiпапdаl abilities. Today tl1ey decide [ог tl1emselves whetl1el" tlley should сотрilе their оwn information files ог if it would Ье prefel"abIe (о addl"ess tl1eil" queries to the spedalized sel"Vices acting in the information market Ни! in any case their information needs аге mostly oriented to the final result - tlle production al1d disseminatiol1 of competitive tech­nologies 01" рюducts.

А contemporary пsег is not content, iп most cases, with а simple subject mattel" searcb. еуеп if it is supported Ьу the estimation of the pl"esent-day technology 'еуеl and the trends in its fuгфег dеvеlоршеl1t Не is il1 critical need of additiol1al intel\igel1ce fOI" working out patent and licensing stгategies and in-depth study of sales oppoгtunities for patentabIe innovation results iп iпtешal and ех.tешal markets. '" other words, he needs multifold patent infor­mation support with tlle assistal1ce of analytics having efficient aCCe5S [Q сЬе пеСе5Sагу расепс dоcuшепr files апd databases.

ll1е IпfОШ1аtiоп Editorial Centel" "Patent"' (INIС) - tl1e last embodiment of the VNПPl - is опе of the institI1tions daiming to рюvidе such sel"vices. Its most valuabIe рюduсt - tl1e widely known abstгacts jоuшаl "Izobretenia stгaп шiга" - 15М (Iпvепtiопs of the WOl"ld) - is the only Rпssiап language еditiоп with the widest covel"age of patent documents published Ьу the leading patent offices of the woгld. The subscriЬer шау get it оп а chоsеп саmег, as а whole ог as sepablte thematic issues. Iп addition INIC offers to its usel"S tlle abstгacts database "INIC-ISM"; сЬас covel"S patent publications from 1996 to 2010. А user тау also order а database of selected subject matteг оп CD ог DVD. Finally, INIC accepts queries for individual seal"ches in the "INIC-ISМO' database. Тhel"efore, а usel" rпaу choose алу suitabIe fопп satisfYing his patel1t iпfоппаtiоп пееd апd - what is ехtrешеlу impoгtant - will оvегсоше language bamers.

Тhe second significant constitI1ent of INIC work consists iп tl1e additional ршсеssing of primary раtепt souгces and pl"eparing diffel'ent al1a1ytic, oversight and I"еfегепсе шаtеrials. ТЬеу include the quarterly magazine "Раtепt Iпfоrmаtiоп Today" (Patentnaia Informacia Segodnia). tl1e monthly abstгacts collections "Patent Affail"s" (Patentnoe Delo), analyticall"eviews "Priority dil"ections of sdentific/technica! development алd prospective inventions", "Аппиаl Patent Review. Раtепt1пg iп Russia". Besides,lNIC I"egulaгly pubIishes шоdеl dОCUЛ1епts and sdепt1fiс and шеthоdоlоgiсаl wOl"ks of well knоwn sdentists оп intelleetual pгoperty matters [12]. INIC “Patent” contact details al”e: tel. (499)255–13-52, tel./fax (499) 252-06-96; e-mail: inic_patel1t@l11tu-netгu, the Intemet ­http//www.iпiсраtепt/ru.

5. Condusion

Раtепt iпfоппаtiоп activity is dblnging Шldег the il1fluel1ce of new social objectives, needing special iпfоппаtiоп supp0гt. апd (Ье character of пеwlу ешеl”giпg пsе,” needs, as well as сhапgiпg as а result of the methods алd теаns for their satisfaction.

50 years ago patent information activity was, mainly, oriented to iпfогmаtiоп support for рl”еliшiпагу алd subsequent offidal patent ех.аmiпаtiоп Ьу рюvidiпg tl1is рюсеss with pril11ary patent iпfОI”­mation sources. Th15 objective pl”esupposed tl1e availability of sufficiently full collections of patent specifications. апangеd accol”ding to раtепt dassifications, and tlleil” use in the tгaditional libl”al)’ system. А! the same time it was песеssагу (о determine priorit1es of centгalized рrocеssiпg апа diS5emination of patent iпfоrmаtiоп Ьу means of modem iпfОl”Шаtiоп technologies.

In the 1970s, when this task was mostly accomplished. the gоvеmшепtal authorities obliged tlle Сопunittее оп lnventions апа Discoveries to carry out patent research сопсешiпg the most imроrtалt ргоЫешs of industIial dеvеlоршепt апа assess the tесhпiсаl level of new pl”ojects. Ву this decision the activity of (Ье Committee went beyond the narгow limits of departrnental patent ех.аmiпаtiоп tasks. IпfОШ1аtiоп selvices wеге obIiged (о сопсеп­tгate тоге attention оп patent search апа assessment probIems and bl”ing со the fOl”ettont new researr.hes, dil”ected to pl”eparing ol”ganizational and methodological base fOI” сопstructiпg ап inte­grated patent infОl”Шаtiоп system – the GSPI – in the country.

‘П the 1990s tlle transfer to а ПЫl”kеt есопоту ге-onепtеd Russiал enterprises to the final result – the production апа dissеmiпаtiоп of competitive technologies апа pгoducts. То solve this ргоЫеm they needed additional intelligence for working ои! раtепt and Iicensing strategies and in-depth study of sales оррог­tI1пШеs fш patentabIe innovation I”esults in iпtешаl and ex.tепыl шагkеts.

Тherefore. meeting today’s requirements of users, INIC ·Patent” pгovides а total sel”Vice – beginning from process1ng patent pгiтaгy soul”ces and ending Ьу pubIishing analytic and othel” materials 50 пееdеd Ьу iПLеllесшаl рroреГlу dеcisiоп mаkегs.

References

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[3] Е.У. Sll1orodinova, /пfоптtаооn seareh systеП1 оС patents оп gyroseopes/fThe 3rd ЛlI-Uniоп еопСетепсе оп ,п/отmаооп search systems and automatic ,п/оrшааоп processing-v.\-Moscow, 1967.

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(6) Z1kstelsky ВА, Кt'avets LG, Nabatov ВС, Ovchil1nikov NA. Thе system of bibIiograpllic infогmаtiоп automatie ргосеssiпg. lssue 2: tlle project апd [Ье first ехрепепсе оС ill1plementing [Ье system. Moscow: Thе СМ1Р/; 1970.

(7) l У. ЛIСегоva. ВА Geniп, lR. Ivanov, О.У. Kedrovsky, У.У. Sipapin. New rasks оС automating раtепt iпfоrrnatiоп processing// Тhe тesб оС сЬе 5cientific conference 1'I1e prob\ems of developing Thе 5tate Расе"с /nCormation system", Moscow, OctoЬer 1981.

(8] О.У. Kedrovsky, Р.Р. Kirsanov. LG. Kravets. С.А. Neguliaev. Thе State Patent\пfОП1ыtion 5уstепl/{VОр”OSY !zob\’etate\stva (Invention Problешs}-198IНt1.

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(11 J Кеdгоvsky ОУ, Kravets LG, Mold1anova АЛ Огgaпizatiоп о! patent fiJe пеrwогk. World Patent /пfОПl1аtiоп 1986;8(4):273-7.

(12} LF. Budnikova. Thе light at [Ье end о/ [Ье tunnel. //Patentnaia In/ormatsia segodnia (Patent Information Today) -201 1Нt1.