Personal site of Leonid G. Kravets

Dear colleagues, please accept my congratulations on the New Year!

I hope that we will witness favorable technological and geopolitical transformations


Intellectual property in the environment of global technological and geopolitical changes

The world is entering an era of global technological and geopolitical changes. They would inevitably  affect the functioning of the IP legal protection system and its patent information subsystem . Here are some of my notes, illustrating the present and forthcoming events.

  • The global economy is on the threshold of the Fourth Industrial Revolution ( “Industry 4.0″), which is based on the “Internet of Things” ( iOt) – an intelligent interconnection of smart devices (smart devices), through which objects can perceive and communicate with one another determining how, where and by whom the decision should be adjusted with respect to our physical world. Digitization media machinery is seen as the first step towards the formation of Industry 4.0. As the Fourth Industrial Revolution, it has taken on the name Industry 4.0, in keeping with the way new versions or releases of software are usually designated. This is appropriate, considering that the latest industrial revolution is powered by the Internet and Web-enabled software applications, capable of processing streams of manufacturing data. Its purpose is to transform the industry that links the physical and virtual aspects of information technology and cybersystems to create a new working environment, integrating the activities of man and machine.
  • Implications of the Industry 4.0 impact on the patent system seem to be  potentially huge as they challenge some of the fundamental provisions of the system. One of the questions is – how many of the technologies, needed for the IoT, are patentable at all. The creation of  open environment applications (ITunes, AndroidPlay etc.) completely changed the patent  landscape and associated business models. Free access to the Android operating system destroyed software licensing market. In turn, companies such as Ericsson and Qualcomm’s, have a representative portfolio of “essential” patents (Standard Essential patents) – on the invention to be used for compliance with technical standards. It is estimated that the user may have to pay a royalty of 15% of the net sales value of its handsets / devices, if he does not have any patents that protect its business. It is essential to correctly understand both – the legal framework of standardization and patent protection  structure of the industry. The companies within the scope of the Internet of Things must also have a strategy of gaining IP rights. This strategy, as an integral part of their overall business strategy, should ensure, at a minimum, an assessment of your business future, identify its opportunities and  prevent the most significant threats.
  • At the same time, the world is engulfed by globalization, changing the structure of the world economy, which only recently have been understood as a collection of national economies related to each other by a system of international division of labor, economic and political relations and inclusion in the world market. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) and Public Health has established standards for IP protection in the modern world, which are mandatory for all WTO members. Today, however, the global economy has become transformed into a set of regional geopolitical systems that provide major windfalls for the world poles of economic and technological development. The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) – the US initiated preferential trade agreement between the 12 countries of the Asia-Pacific region – is the last characteristic example of this trend. Its purpose is to reduce tariff barriers, as well as the regulation of internal rules, in the Member States` areas of labor law,  environment, intellectual property and several others.

The TTP Agreement invades IP protection issues. It provides a protection change of currently existing copyright and patent rights, to the detriment of  a balanced policy that promotes global innovation, creativity and political freedom. Particular attention was paid to the film and the pharmaceutical industry. A controversial interpretation of the TRIPS puts in jeopardy the interpretation of flexibility, guaranteed by the “fair use doctrine”, which entails tougher copyright enforcement on the Internet. It also proposed the extension of copyright terms beyond existing international standards: a) the extension of the term of copyright protection, owned by corporations, from the current 50 to 95 years from the date of first publication; b) reducing the TTP countries potential for flexible adaptation of their  internal rules of fair use of copyright works etc. The proposed  terms of patenting inventions: a) restrict access to cheap versions of generic drugs, b) strengthen and extend patent protection, limiting access to essential medicines for the treatment of cancer, heart disease and HIV – diseases; c) reduce patentability standards for TTC countries and administer patent protection for surgical and other treatments, and also for old medicines insignificant variations.

By the way, the US President-elect Donald Trump said that during his presidency the US will come out of the TTP, as it does not meet US interests. Representatives of the Trump team condemned the Democrats position, supporting the revision of the existing patent laws, facilitating the patenting of new inventions and challenging granted patents, although this reform promotes an increase in litigation and acts for the benefit of large companies.  The question of hasty patent reform revision in Trump`s First 100 day`s Program is absent.

  • Final remarks. The present deterioration of relations in geopolitical sphere entails a violation of international  economic relations and the erection of barriers to the exchange of scientific and technical achievements. In this regard, I wish to reaffirm my deep conviction that in similar crisis situations the IP system with its patent information resources remains one of the most stable means of ensuring international scientific, technical  and economic ties. At the same time, we must be prepared for the fact that –  in the context of global technological and geopolitical changes – patent information support of innovative processes will also undergo radical changes – both in terms of information and analytical content and  the latest information technology. It will take new ideas of classifying data bases adapted to the transformation of present branches configuration, of data classification and visualization, taking into account the intellectual relationship of “smart things”, platforms of ThingWorx type, designed to build innovative applications, launch and commercialize intelligent network products.

Note: The raised above questions are discussed in more detail in the following publications: 1)7 Things to Know about the Internet of Things and Industry 4.0; Article From: 9/1/2015 Modern Machine Shop, Mark Albert , Editor-in-Chief; 2) How to address Internet of Things (IoT) from a Patent perspective. Written by Senior External Advisor, Joakim Nelson –…default…attachments…internetofthings…3) Patent issues and the Internet of Things –…/article_patent_i..; 4) US push on intellectual property conflicts with international norms.  // by Carolina Rossini.  – -www.america.aljazeera.comopinions/2013/12/tpp; 5)TPP no done deal; hurdles include interpretation, legislative approval, U.S. election//BY ERIC JOHNSTON. NOV 16, 2015   –…tpp…hurdles…interpretation…; 6)Pence, Conservative Views on Patents Likely to Influence Trump. P.Harter & G. Quinn, 11 Nov, 2016 –…pence…substance-trumps-patent…/i ..




The Purpose of the updated personal site –

In today’s economy, which is called the “knowledge economy”, no any responsible decision is  taken without adequate information and analytical support. Such support is particularly necessary in the circumstances involving the creation and development of new technologies, which are essential to ensure the competitiveness of businesses. The increasingly important role in these processes is played by the patent information (PI). Especially because in our time the scope of the PI has multiplied. Today, the term “patent information” is a kind of brand that encompasses a variety of information flows related to registration,  provision of legal protection and commercialization of IP assets related to science and technology, as well as the means of business individualization .

In addition, this sector includes the results of the analytical and synthetic processing of primary PI. They are then used for managing corporate IP assets in order to accelerate innovation processes and providing competitive advantages and strategic decision-making for scientific and technological development at the macroeconomic level. This is not surprising. The researchers found a direct link between the level of inventive activity in a specific subject area and the prospect of the relevant scientific and technical direction, the intensity of invention patentings in the country and its level of economic development, the structure of relative patenting / licensing and foreign trade and export-import policy.

In a globalized economy it has become increasingly important to study the theory and practice of information and analytical support of innovation processes in different countries. Therefore, the site offers mostly results of the translation, summarization and analytical processing of foreign sources of PI, which is one of its major advantages.

The Vebsite Content

This Site includes the main page, news, six thematic sections and  the reference to foreign-language users:

Section 1: “Abstracts of the current foreign publications”   [Рефераты текущих зарубежных публикаций]

It includes 4 subsections:

-In The world of intellectual property: regularly updated reports on the most important or interesting events in the world of IP, deriving from the sites of patent offices and other organizations operating in the field of IP, including the publication of press and information agencies.

-Innovations and intellectual property “: essays devoted to studying the possibilities of patent information support of innovative processes

-Patent information resources: the latest news on the development of the Internet available patent information resources

- Analytical potential of patent information: abstracts of publications on the analysis of competitors’ activities, the improvement of  the corporate IP asset

management , development strategies for the effective use of IP in the innovation process in order to ensure sustainable competitive advantages

Section 2. “The archival materials from previous years” includes five sections:   [Архивные материалы за предыдущие годы]

• Essays on patent information support of innovations – Рефераты о Методах патентно-информационного обеспечения инноваций

• Essays on information retrieval and analysis systems – Рефераты об информационно-поисковых и аналитических системах

• Short reviews – Краткие аналитические обзоры

• Annotations of the publications in “Patent information today“magazine – in Russian and English (2014-2010) – Аннотации публикаций Журнала “Патентная информация сегодня” (2014-2010)

• The bibliographic descriptions of papers collection “Patent Deel” (2014-2010 ) – Библиография публикаций Сборника «Патентное дело» (2014-2010 гг.)

Section 3. “The full texts of my magazine articles” published in  2014-2008 . [Полные тексты моих журнальных статей (2014-2008)]

Four sections contains articles on the following topics:

Intellectual property and innovation

Intellectual property and competition

• Development of Patent Information Services

• The history of developing patent information system (by the way,  two of my articles here have been  published in English:)

- The first steps in developing machine translation of patents//World Patent Information – 2013 , №3. – The TSNIIPI MT experimental system, developed in 1963–1966, was focused on the translation of publications of the US weekly “Official Gazette”, specifically the first paragraphs of patent claims. These claims are characterized by an abundance of difficult to grasp multicomponent terminological combinations and by a specific syntactic structure of unusually long sentences containing up to several hundred words. The system’s algorithm performed the segmentation of the English text, and the identification and structural analysis of multicomponent word groups necessary to synthesize the corresponding Russian equivalents.

- Fifty years of patent information centres in Russia//World Patent Information -2011-№3 –The article contains а brief historical review of developing раtепt infonnation centers in the structure of the State Сommittее оп Iпvеntions апd Discoveries (Rospatent) and their participation in estabIishing the national раtепt information system. Тhe process was  divided into  stages resulting from, first, changes in the new user generatin needs of products and services-and, second, renewal of methods, technologies and organizational forms of innovation processes information support.

Section 4. “Expanded abstracts and tables of contents of my books,” published in 2013 – 2002:  [hефераты и оглавление моих книг (2013-2002гг.)

Patent  information support of innovations [Патентно-информационная поддержка инноваций]

Protecting the corporate brand on the Internet (co A.S.Zhukov)  [Защита корпоративного бренда в Интернете]

Patent  information support of business competitiveness [Патентно-информационное обеспечение конкурентоспособности предпринимательства]

Intellectual resources of competitive intelligence (co S.A.Obrezanov)  [Интеллектуальные ресурсы конкурентной разведки]

• The competitiveness of business and competitive intelligence (co S.A.Obrezanov)  [Конкурентоспособность предпринимательства и конкурентная разведка]

Patent and copyright protection in cyberspace [Охрана патентных и авторских прав в киберпространстве]

Section 5. “Bibliographic descriptions of my publications” – a few hundred books, pamphlets, articles and abstracts published in 1962 – 2014 years on the following topics:

[Библиография моих публикаций с 1962 года по настоящее время;

Introduction - Вступление

• Prospects of the intellectual property system development - Перспективы развития системы интеллектуальной собственности

Information and analytical support of innovation - Информационно-аналитическая поддержка инноваций

• Organization of Patent Information Service - Организация патентно-информационного обслуживания

Automation of patent information work - Автоматизация патентно-информационных работ

Applied linguistics and machine translation - Прикладная лингвистика и машинный перевод ]

Updated section 6. Unpublished manuscript of my articles and reviews “

News in 2017. From now on, this section includes two subsections:

  • Brief overview and analyzes; there will be compiled and analyzed information on topical issues, drawn from the most interesting abstracts of current foreign publicat

Section 7. “Patent Information and Competition” (in English)

This site provides an improved (with the assistance of A.S.Zhukova) search procedure of the website materials. To facilitate the search for their users who do not speak the Russian language, the names of all sections and subsections in the English-language version of the site translated from Russian into English and vice versa (search in this section is carried out through its name at the end of the menu).

Home Главная
Summaries of current foreign publications – Рефераты текущих зарубежных публикаций
- In the world of intellectual property -                       В мире интеллектуальной собственности
- Innovation and Intellectual Property Инновации и интеллектуальная собственность
- Patent Information Resources Патентно-информационные ресурсы
- Analytical potential of patent information - Аналитический потенциал патентной информации
Archival materials from previous years                       Архивные материалы за предыдущие годы
- The full text of my journal articles (2014-2008) -  Полные тексты моих журнальных статей (2014-2008)
– Abstracts and table of contents of my books (2013-2002gg.) - Рефераты и оглавление моих книг (2013-2002гг.)
- A list of my publications from 1962 to the present - Библиография моих публикаций с 1962 года по настоящее время
Unpublished manuscript  of my articles – Неопубликованные в открытой печати рукописи моих статей and reviews

All mentioned above abstracted materials as well as the texts of my publications are publicly  available to all users free of charge. However, since all presented here materials   were subjected to time-consuming processing (translation, abstracting, summarizing and others.), which enriches them with additional consumer properties, I ask You,  when using the site content, to mention the source  (

Over the past  existence of the  site (since 2010) it acquired a rather  wide popularity. Each month it is visited by hundreds of users from different regions of the country and  Russian-speaking experts of the foreign states. I hope that the implementation of improvement of the site in the New Year will be perceived positively by my colleagues.


Something about myself,

see in the Introduction to the final section of the site – “Bibliographic descriptions of all my publications from 1962 to the present”:

a) a review of the publication reflecting the process of more than half a century of development of information and analytical support for the system of the right protection of intellectual property in the country (starting with the creation of the world’s first machine translation system focused on the processing of patent claims);

b) brief biographical data from 1942 to the present;

c) official estimates of my half a century of work in the patent information system ;

d)greetings of colleagues and comic publications on my website and in the press; a reciprocal expression of appreciation for the support of colleagues and members of my family;

e) my reaction to some important events, including a negative evaluation of Russia’s policy in Ukraine and support for the election campaign of Alexei Navalny.——–———————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————-